A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master and doctorate) in a variety of subjects.

The usual practice in the United States today is to use university in the official names of institutions made up of several faculties or schools and granting a range of higher degrees, while college is used in the official names of smaller institutions only granting bachelor’s or associate’s degrees.

Charles University is the oldest University in the Middle-Eastern part of Europe. The University was founded in 1348 by Bohemian King and Roman Emperor Charles IV. In origin it consisted of 4 faculties of free arts, medicine, law and theology. At present time Charles University is a self-governing institution, consisting of the central University and seventeen relatively independent Faculties. Faculty of Physical Education and Sport is the youngest faculty of Charles University.


The highest academic official of the university is the Rector. This title is used widely in universities across Europe. However, a notable exception to this terminology is England, where universities are traditionally headed by a Chancellor. This designation is followed in the Commonwealth and other countries under Anglo-Saxon influence with the exception of USA, where universities are headed by their President. In European and Canadian universities, the person at the head of the faculty is referred as the Dean. The Dean reports directly to the rector, president or chancellor. The Dean has the dual role of making independent judgments on total University matters and representing the particular Faculty's policies and points of view. There are also Associate Deans (Vice-Deans) responsible to the Dean for particular administrative functions such as the Vice-Dean of study affairs, foreign affairs, science and research, or development. The Vice-Deans are members of the Dean’s advisory board.

Below deans in the administrative hierarchy are heads of individual academic departments and of individual administrative departments from maintenance to libraries to registrars of records. These heads (commonly styled "chairs") then supervise the staff of their individual departments.

Professor is an extremely prestigious and high ranking position. Professors at all European universities are promoted primarily on the basis of their research achievements. The title of "Professor" is reserved in correspondence to full professors only, lecturers and readers are properly addressed by their academic qualification.

In order to hold the rank of Associate Professor (Reader) within the Central European system, it is generally necessary to have attained the Habilitation. It is thus a qualification at a higher level than the Ph.D. degree. The Habilitation is awarded after a public lecture, to be held after the thesis has been accepted. Habilitation Thesis is a post-doctoral thesis produced for the purpose of demonstrating further competence in the research area covered.

With the Habilitation, the status of „Docent“ (Associate Professor) is awarded.

Assistant professor is a staff member who holds the Ph.D. degree or other doctorate, in some colleges a master’s degree may suffice.

Lecturer is the name given to university teachers in most of the English-speaking world (but not at most universities in the U.S. or Canada who do not hold a professorship. Most lecturers in the UK have Ph.D.s. In many fields this is now a prerequisite of the job.

Figure1: Academic positions

An undergraduate degree (sometimes called a first degree or simply a degree) is the most common and primary academic degree. The most common type of an undergraduate degree is the bachelor’s degree, which typically takes three or four years to complete. A student following an undergraduate degree programme is known as an undergraduate, because they have not yet graduated (received a degree). Once they have graduated, undergraduate degrees allow their holders to continue into graduate or postgraduate education. The degree abbreviations may vary between institutions, for instance BS and B.Sc. both stand for Bachelor of Science. When comparing the same degree programmes provided by institutions in different countries, there may be no difference between the B.A. degree, which stands for Bachelor of Art, and the B.Sc. Simply saying, Science students will select a number of their electives from the sciences (Biology, Chemistry, and Physics), while Arts student will select primarily from the arts and humanities. Beyond these differences, the variation between the B.A. degree and the BS degree depends on the policies of the colleges and universities.

Master’s degree in the recently standardized European system of higher education diplomas, corresponds to a one-year or two-year graduate program to be entered after three years of undergraduate studies to obtain a higher qualification for employment purposes or in preparation for doctoral studies. A graduate student (also grad student or grad in American English, postgraduate (student) or postgrad in British English) is an individual who has completed a bachelor’s degree and is pursuing further higher education, with the goal of earning a master’s degree (M.A., MS, M.Sc.) or a doctorate.

A doctorate is an academic degree of the highest level. Professional doctoral degrees (also called first professional degrees) are terminal degrees in certain fields, e.g. dentistry or medicine. The most common type of research doctorate is a Ph.D. (Philosophiæ Doctor or Doctor of Philosophy). Research doctorates are nearly always awarded in recognition of academic research that is of a publishable standard. The research is usually assessed by submission and defense of a doctoral thesis or dissertation.

There are various conventions for indicating degrees and diplomas after one's name. In some cultures it is usual to give only the highest degree. In others, it is usual to give the full sequence, in some cases giving abbreviations also for the discipline, or the institution.


Students apply to one or more faculties or universities by submitting an application. Following their application, the applicants, who must be a secondary school graduates, have to pass a competitive entrance examination that is to determine whether prospective students have required knowledge and skills to enter the university.


Study programmes are divided into individual academic years, the time during which a university holds classes. The divisions of each academic year are usually called terms or semesters (winter/fall semester and summer/spring semester), depending on the institution and the country. Universities often have two semesters in the academic year, each lasting between 14 and 18 weeks. Each semester is concluded by a five-week examination period reserved only for examinations and other forms of assessment. July and August are referred as the academic holidays. Students must re-enrol after each academic year. Re-enrolment includes a check of the fulfilment of all duties prescribed by a study programme. The check is carried out by the Faculty Registration Office (or Registrar’s Office in the U.S. universities).


A lecture is, generally, a form of academic instruction where the lecturer usually stands at the front of the room and recites information relevant to the lecture's content. Critics point out that lecturing is mainly a one-way method of communication that does not involve significant audience participation. Some argue that lectures "represent a conception of education in which teachers who know, give knowledge to students who do not and are therefore supposed to have nothing worth contributing”. On the other hand, the use of multimedia presentation software has changed the form of lectures at present time, e.g. PowerPoint, video, graphics, websites, or prepared exercises may be included. Also, lectures delivered by talented speakers can be highly stimulating, which may be the reason why lectures have survived in the academic area as a quick, cheap and efficient way of introducing large numbers of students to a particular field of study.

Lecturing is often contrasted to active learning supplementing the lectures with smaller teaching sections based on active interaction with students. Those forms of teaching are generally known as seminars, tutorials, laboratory or practical sessions, in the academic parlance called practicals.

Seminar is a form of academic instruction, in which everyone present is requested to actively participate. It is essentially a place where assigned readings are discussed, questions can be raised and debates conducted. It is relatively informal, at least compared to the lecture system of academic instruction.

In British academic parlance, a tutorial is a small class of one, or only a few students, in which the tutor (professor, assistant professor or an academic advisor) gives individual attention to the students. In some Canadian and American universities, a tutorial refers to a discussion section, that is, a class of between 12-18 students that is supplemental to a large lecture course, which gives students the opportunity to discuss the lectures and/or additional readings in smaller groups.


At UK and US universities the individual courses that make up the degree program can be divided into the following types:


Examination is a graded form of assessment to check students' knowledge in the given subject and their ability to evaluate problems and phenomena by independent thinking. Examination may be written, oral, or combined. It is graded "excellent", "very good", "good" and "failed". Students may sit for an examination a maximum of three times. No extra dates apart from the one ordinary attempt and the two re-sits are permissible.

Credit (coursework) is an ungraded form of assessment, granted for fulfilling the tasks set by the educator for the given course. It is usually conditional upon regular attendance, a test, a presentation, practical demonstration, etc. It is acknowledged as "passed". The educator confirms that students have passed the various forms of assessment by signing and dating the student's personal credit-book ('index') and enters the data into the student electronic system, which is finally checked by the Registrar’s Office.


A thesis (dissertation) defense, also known as "defending one's thesis," or viva voce, is a part of the final state examination for a master’s or Ph.D. candidate. Questions are typically about the content of the thesis/dissertation. Examiners may need clarification on a point or points, or may ask the candidate to explain his or her reasoning further. Questions may also challenge the candidate's views, methods, or conclusions. Part of the evaluation is based on how well the candidate can defend his or her work. Passing the master’s defense successfully is prerequisite to be accepted for the final state examination.

Final B.A. (B.Sc.)/ M.A. (M.Sc.) Examinations held at the end of the entire degree programme, are usually oral in the Czech academic area, although some may be practical or have practical components. Those who pass all components successfully are awarded the corresponding academic degree and receive their diploma at the associated ceremony.

Graduation ceremony involves a procession of the academic staff wearing the academic gowns, and students onto the stage to the accompaniment of organ music. It is followed by delivering speeches, the giving of diplomas, and an official moment when the graduates take the graduation oath by tipping the insignia and saying ”Spondeo ac polliceor”.

The graduates should always be the best ambassadors of their alma mater. Graduation provides the opportunity to recognise your achievements, celebrate with your families and friends and thank them for their encouragement and support.

READING (Authentic text)

The term physical education can describe many different things. To most people, physical education refers to the activity classes they took at school. While students in the bachelor degree program in Physical Education and Sport may choose a career as physical education teacher, there are countless other careers and areas of study that a physical education student may pursue. Careers available to the graduates of the degree are varied. Some examples: fitness instructor or consultant, community recreation programmer, coach, exercise physiologist, personal trainer, director or organizer of sporting events, etc.

Physical education and sport closely linked with sport and exercise science is one of the most rapidly advancing areas of life in general. As sport becomes more professionalized and commercionalized, the demand for scientific evidence to improve sport performance and physical fitness of the entire population has increased. Physical activity and exercise is considered vitally important for health, and, therefore, the fields of medicine, health promotion, education and industry take a deep interest in a quality exercise leadership and expertise in diverse areas such as anatomy, physiology, exercise physiology, biochemistry, sports biomechanics, or sports psychology, sports management and physiotherapy.


Graduates are qualified to work independently as P.E. teachers at all levels of the educational system. With their professional, teaching, socio-psychological and organizational competencies, the graduates are allowed to draw up individual and mass exercise/sport programmes, control the process and assess the effectiveness - in the educational system, recreational sport, competitive and elite sport. Their expertise in methodology and teaching methods allows for modifying these programmes in practice and facilitates creative and individual applications in class, team or group leadership with distinctive approach to individuals at various levels of physical and mental development.


The degree courses include instruction in program planning and development; business and financial management principles; sales, marketing and recruitment; event promotion, scheduling and management; facilities management; public relations; legal aspects of sports; and applicable health and safety standards. The graduates are qualified to apply business, coaching and physical education principles to the organization, administration and management of sport programs and teams, professional sports, sports associations and leagues, fitness/rehabilitation facilities and health clubs, sport recreation services, and related services.


Physiotherapists, qualified for a paramedical health care profession, are integral members of the modern healthcare team and work in many settings to make a difference to people's quality of life. Using physical approaches, physiotherapists promote, maintain and restore patients' well-being, restore functional movement and improve health.

The physiotherapists are endowed with practical skills applicable within the full extent of physiotherapy, abilities to act independently and use rationally a broad spectrum of physiotherapeutic methods and procedures, including therapeutic procedures based on physical agents.


Bachelor of Physical Education. In University of Alberta. Retrieved May 5, 2007 from
Sport and Fitness Administration & Management. In University of Northwood. Retrieved March 23, 2007 from
Physiotherapy. In University of Coventry. Retrieved March 18, 2007 from

Figure 2: Organizational Structure of Faculty of Physical Education in Prague

Faculty of Physical Education and Sport offers BSc and MSc degree programmes in the following fields of study: Physical Education and Sport, Physiotherapy, Sports Management, Military Physical Education and Teaching Studies.

The Ph.D. degree can be attained in the field of Biomedicine (Biomechanics) and Kinanthropology (Sport and Exercise Science).

Listening comprehension

Grading System

Prosím, stáhněte si nejnovější Javu a Flash


  1. What is one of the key differences in the educational system the international students may face when studying abroad?
  2. What grading system is followed at the Czech universities?
  3. Is the ECTS grading scale similar to the U.S. grade system?
  4. Describe the ECTS grading system.
  5. Is the ECTS system generally used to evaluate the student’s performance at all European Universities?
  6. What is the difference between grades and credits?
  7. What are credits used for in the student’s evaluation?


academic akademický, školní, vysokoškolský
acknowledge uznat
adapted physical education tělesná výchova a sport pro tělesně postižené
administration administrativa, správa, řízení
admission přijetí ke studiu
admit (to) přijmout (ke studiu)
    be admitted být přijat ke studiu
advisor školitel
allocate přidělit, udělit
applicant uchazeč
application přihláška (ke studiu)
apply (for admission) přihlásit se (ke studiu)
assign zadat (práci, úkol)
assignment zadání (práce, úkolu)
assessment hodnocení, klasifikace
assistant professor odborný asistent
associate professor docent
attain dosáhnout, docílit
    attain habilitation/professorship habilitovat/dosáhnout profesury
award udělit (akademický titul)
B.A. (bachelor of arts) zkratka pro akademický titul bakaláře v humanitní oblasti
board komise, rada
BS, B.Sc. (bachelor of science) zkratka pro akademický titul bakaláře v oblasti Sport and Exercise
chair vedoucí katedry
college vysoká škola (většinou nabízející pouze bakalářské studium), fakulta, vyšší odborná škola
Chancellor rektor
clarify objasnit
class, classes vyučovací hodina, výuka
conclude zakončit, završit
conduct vést
coursework práce studenta ve výuce, zápočet
credit kredit, kreditní bod, zápočet
    credit-book studijní průkaz, index
Dean děkan
    Dean’s advisory board kolegium děkana
    Dean’s Office děkanát
defense obhajoba
    thesis defense obhajoba diplomové práce
degree akademická hodnost, titul
    degree holder nositel akademického titulu
    degree programme studijní program/obor
    B.Sc. degree in Physical Education and Sport bakalářské studium tělesné výchovy a sportu, titul
    bakaláře v oboru TVS
    bachelor’s degree titul bakaláře
    master’s degree titul magistra
    professional doctoral degree profesní doktorát (např. PhDr.)
department katedra, oddělení
deputy (to the Head) zástupce vedoucího
diploma diplom
    diploma in a subject diplom v nějakém oborou
dissertation diplomová práce (většinou se ale jedná o práci doktorskou, disertaci)
division sekce, oddělení
doctoral doktorský
doctorate doktorát
    research doctorate vědecký doktorát (Ph.D.)
ECTS European Credit Transfer System Evropský kreditní systém
educator vyučující
examination, exam zkouška
    entrance/entry examination přijímací zkouška
    take/sit for an exam jít ke zkoušce, skládat zkoušku
    re-sit (an exam) skládat zkoušku v opravném termínu
    examination period zkušební období
examine zkoušet
examiner examinátor, zkoušející
faculty fakulta
fail (an exam) neuspět (u zkoušky)
grade známka, hodnocení, klasifikovat, hodnotit, známkovat
    graded klasifikovaný, hodnocený známkou
    graded credit klasifikovaný zápočet
grading scale klasifikační stupnice
grading system klasifikační řád
graduate absolvovat, úspěšně zakončit celé studium
    graduate from a university absolvovat (univerzitu)
    graduate student, grad student magisterského, většinou však doktorského studia
graduation absolutorium, úspěšné ukončení studia
    graduation ceremony promoce
grant grant, finanční dotace, v  udělit
habilitation habilitace
head of the department vedoucí katedry
instruction výuka
lecture přednáška
    give/deliver lectures přednášet
lecturer asistent
lecturing přednášková činnost
M.A. (master of arts) zkratka pro akademický titul magistra v humanitní oblasti
MS, M.Sc. (master of science) zkratka pro akademický titul magistra v oblasti Sport and Exercise Science
oath slavnostní slib (promoční)
official činovník, pracovník
parlance žargon, mluva
pass úspěšně vykonat, složit (zkoušku)
    pass grade známka, která znamená úspěšné absolvování studijních požadavků
postgraduate postgraduální
    postgrad student postgraduálního studia
practicals pl. praktická výuka
President rektor
prerequisite nezbytně nutný, povinný, nezbytný předpoklad
professor profesor
professorship profesura
    hold professorship mít profesuru, být profesorem
rank postavení, hodnost
reader docent
rector rektor
reading(s) samostatné studium zadané literatury
refer vztahovat se, týkat
    be referred to (as)  být pojmenován, hovořit o
register zapsat (se)
registrar’s office studijní oddělení
registration office studijní oddělení
semester semestr
seminar seminář
senior lecturer odborný asistent
session učební jednotka, výuka
    laboratory session (a laboratory, lab) praktické cvičení v laboratoři
    practical session praktická výuka
shortcomings nedostatky
sound solidní, přiměřený
spondeo ac polliceor slavnostně slibuji, slibuji a zavazuji se
sports medicine tělovýchovné lékařství
staff zaměstnanci, pracovníci
student teaching odborná pedagogická praxe studentů
submission odevzdání, přeložení
submit odevzdat, předložit
suffice postačovat, stačit, být dostatečným
sufficient postačující, dostatečný
supplement s doplněk, dodatek (k diplomu), v doplňovat
term semestr, zkušební termín
thesis diplomová práce
tutor tutor, vyučující, který vede tutoriál
tutorial tutoriál (forma výuky, kde se vyučující věnuje pouze jedinému studentovi, či velmi
    malému počtu studentů)
undergraduate vztahující se k bakalářskému studiu
    undergraduate degree titul dosažený v pregraduálním, bakalářském studiu
    undergraduate degree programme pregraduální studium
    undergraduate student student bakalářského programu
Vice-Chancellor prorektor
Vice-Dean proděkan

Content        Chapters: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7        Vocabulary       Listening        References