The human body is arguably the most wonderful, complex organisms on this planet. The human body is a single structure but it is made up of billions of smaller structures of four major kinds: cells, tissues, organs and systems.

The body is composed of ten major systems: Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Endocrine, Urinary, and Reproductive.


The human body consists of three major areas: the head, the trunk and the extremities (limbs). Common names of well known parts of the human body, from top to bottom, are as follows:

Figure 7: Human body, anterior view
Figure 7: Human body, anterior view


The front of the head, where the eyes, ears, nose and mouth are located, is called the face. The area above the eyes is called the forehead and below the mouth is the chin.


In colloquial speech the term arm often refers to the entire upper limb from the shoulder to the wrist. The segment between the shoulder and the elbow is the upper arm and the segment between the elbow and wrist is the forearm.

The shoulder is the ball-and-socket joint between the end of the humerus and the clavicle and scapula.

The elbow joint is the hinge joint between the distal end of the humerus and the proximal ends of the radius and ulna.

The hands are our chief organs for physically manipulating the environment. Each hand is dominantly controlled by the opposing brain hemisphere, and thus handedness, or preferred hand choice for single-handed activities such as writing with a pen, reflects a significant individual trait.

Figure 8: Human body, posterior view

Figure 8: Human body, posterior view


The spine is the central support for the body. Another word for the spine is the backbone. The spine is made of separate irregular bones called vertebrae. There is a layer of cartilage (disc) in between each vertebra that keeps the bones from rubbing against each other. There are twenty six vertebrae in the spine. According to the region and position, the spine is divided into cervical – 7 vertebrae (C1-C7), thoracic – 12 vertebrae (T1-T12), lumbar – 5 vertebrae (L1-L5), sacral – 5 (fused) vertebrae (S1-S5) and coccygeal – 3-5 vertebrae (Co1-Co5).

The chest is the region of the body between the neck and the abdomen. The muscles covering the abdominal wall are abdominal muscles or abs. Ribs are the long curved bones, which form the rib cage. Ribs surround the chest (Latin thorax) and protect the lungs, heart, and other internal organs of the thoracic cavity. The muscles associated with this area are pectoral muscles or pecs and trapezius muscle.


The buttocks are formed by the masses of the gluteal muscles or glutes, superimposed by a layer of fat.

The leg is the lower extremity (limb) of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee and the lower leg.

The thigh is the area between the hip and the knee. The single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is very thick and strong and forms a ball and socket point at the hip, and a condylar joint at the knee.

The knee is the lower extremity joint connecting the femur and the tibia. It actually is comprised of two separate joints. The femoro-patellar joint consists of the patella, or "kneecap"and the patellar groove on the front of the femur through which it slides. The femoro-tibial joint links the femur, or thigh bone, with the tibia, the main bone of the lower leg. The cartilaginous elements within the knee joint, which serve to protect the ends of the bones from rubbing on each other, are called the menisci.

The lower leg is the area between the knee and the ankle, consisting of two bones, tibia and fibula. The muscles found at the back of the lower leg form the calf.

The ankle joint is formed where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle is a hinge joint that connects the distal ends of the tibia and fibula in the lower leg with the proximal end of the talus bone in the foot.

The foot, adjusted to bear the weight of the body, is made up by five toes (big, pointer, middle, ring, little or pinky toes), the bottom of the foot, that is called the sole, instep, the arch of the foot, and heel. The ball of the foot is where the toes join with the rest of the foot. It is muscular and easily blistered. Runners often move with their weight on the balls of their feet for better balance.

Figure 9: Skeletal system, anterior view
Figure 9: Skeletal system, anterior view

The human musculoskeletal system consists of the skeleton, made up of bones attached to other bones with joints, and skeletal muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons. The skeleton of an adult consists of more than 200 bones of various shapes and sizes. They are made up of hard osseous tissue and described as long, short, flat and irregular.


The human body contains more than 650 individual muscles which are attached to the skeleton by tendons. The main function of all muscles is to provide movement for the body. The muscular system consists of three different types of muscle tissues: skeletal, cardiac and smooth. Each of these different tissues has the ability to contract, which then allows body movements and functions. There are two types of muscles in the system and they are the involuntary muscles, and the voluntary muscles. The muscles working under our conscious control are called the voluntary muscles and the ones the function of which can not be consciously controlled are the involuntary muscles. The heart, or the cardiac muscle, is an example of an involuntary muscle.

The skeletal muscles make up about 40 % of an adults body weight. It has stripe-like markings, or striations. The skeletal muscles are composed of long muscle fibers. The nervous system controls the contraction of the muscle. Many of the skeletal muscle contractions are automatic. However we still can control the action of the skeletal muscle. And it is because of this reason that the skeletal muscle is also called voluntary muscle.

Most of our internal organs are made up of smooth muscles. They are found in the urinary bladder, gallbladder, arteries, and veins. Also the digestive tract is made up of smooth muscle as well. The smooth muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and hormones. We cannot consciously control the smooth muscles and that is why they are often called involuntary muscles.

The cardiac muscle is a type of an involuntary striated muscle found exclusively within the heart. Its function is to "pump" blood through the circulatory system by contracting. Unlike skeletal muscle, which contracts in response to nerve stimulation, cardiac muscle’s function is based on self-excitable stimulating contraction without an electrical impulse coming from the central nervous system.

Muscles generally work in pairs to produce movement: when one muscle flexes (or contracts) the other relaxes, a process known as antagonism.

An extensor muscle is any skeletal muscle that opens a joint increasing the angle between components of a limb, such as straightening the knee or elbow and bending the wrist or spine. With the exception of the knee joint the movement is directed backward. This action is known as extension.

A flexor muscle is a skeletal muscle whose contraction bends a joint, decreasing the angle between components of a limb, such as bending the knee or elbow. This action is known as flexion.

An abductor muscle is any of the muscles that cause movement of an extremity (limb) away from the midline of the body or away from a neighbouring part or limb.

An adductor muscle is any of the muscles that draw a part of the body toward its median line or toward the axis of an extremity.

Figure 10: Muscular system, anterior and posterior view
Figure 10: Muscular system, anterior and posterior view


Structurally, the nervous system is composed of two main parts:

  1. The central nervous system which consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  2. The peripheral nervous system, the spinal and cranial nerves.

There are also two functional subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system:

Neurons may be classified according to their function as:

Figure 11: Organization of the Nervous System
Figure 11: Organization of the Nervous System

In all skeletal muscles, contraction is stimulated by electrical impulses transmitted by the nerves, and motor neurons (efferent neurons, motoneurons) in particular. Neurons are basic nerve cells consisting of three parts: cell body, dendrite and axon. Dendrites are extensions from the cell body which conduct impulses to the cell body, axons are extensions carrying the impulses away from the cell body. Neurons communicate with one another via synapses. A synapse is a microscopic space between an axon and a dendrite. Chemicals which help an impulse cross the synapse (such as acetylcholine and catecholamine) are called neurotransmitters.

Motor neurons innervate or activate muscles groups to perform. A single motoneuron may synapse with one or more muscle fibers. One motoneuron and all of the muscle fibers to which it connects is a motor unit. Groups of motor units often work together to coordinate contractions of a single muscle; the number of muscle fibers within each unit can vary. Thigh muscles can have a thousand fibers in each unit, eye muscles might have only ten. In general, the number of muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit is a function of a muscle's need for refined motion. Muscles requiring more refined motion are innervated by motor units that synapse with fewer muscle fibers.

Figure 12 : Internal Organs
Figure 12 : Internal Organs
READING (Authentic text)

The term sports injury, in the broadest sense, refers to the kinds of injuries that most commonly occur during sports or exercise. Some sports injuries result from accidents, others are due to poor training practices, improper equipment, lack of conditioning, or insufficient warm-up and stretching.

Although any part of your body can be injured during sports or exercise, the term is usually reserved for injuries that involve the musculoskeletal system, which includes the muscles, bones, and associated tissues like cartilage.

A strain is an injury which occurs to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching. Strains are also colloquially known as pulled muscles. The equivalent injury to a ligament is a sprain. Typical symptoms of a strain include localized pain, stiffness, swelling, inflammation, and bruising around the strained muscle.

Strains can happen to anyone and are certainly not restricted to athletes; nevertheless, people who are involved in sports are more at risk of developing a strain.

A sprain is an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by a sudden overstretching. The ligament is usually only stretched, but sometimes it can be snapped, slightly torn, or ruptured, all of which are more serious and require longer to heal.

Sprains are graded in three degrees. Although some signs and symptoms can be used to assess the severity of a sprain, the most definitive method is with the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A first degree sprain has only minor tearing of the ligament whereas a third degree sprain is characterized by complete rupture.

The typical signs and symptoms associated with a sprain are the cardinal signs of inflammation: localized pain, swelling, and loss of function.

Although any joint can experience a sprain, some of the more common include the ankle, knee, and fingers. Perhaps one of the more spoken about sprains is that to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament of the knee. This is a disabling sprain common to athletes, especially basketball, soccer, and judo players.

Sprains can best be prevented by proper use of safety equipment (wrist, ankle guards), warm-ups and cool-downs (including stretching), being aware of your surroundings and maintaining strength and flexibility.

Achilles tendon injuries refer to a stretch, tear, or irritation to the tendon connecting the calf muscle to the back of the heel. The most common cause of Achilles tendon tears is a problem called tendinitis, a degenerative condition caused by aging or overuse. When a tendon is weakened, trauma can cause it to rupture.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone becomes cracked, splintered, or bisected as a result of physical trauma. In orthopaedic medicine, fractures are classified as closed or open (compound) and simple or multi-fragmentary (formerly comminuted).

Closed fractures are those in which the skin is intact, while open (compound) fractures involve wounds that communicate with the fracture and may expose bone to contamination. Open injuries carry an elevated risk of infection. They require antibiotics treatment and usually urgent surgical treatment. This involves removal of all dirt, contamination, and dead tissue.

Simple fractures are fractures that occur along one line, splitting the bone into two pieces, while multi-fragmentary fractures involve the bone splitting into multiple pieces. A simple, closed fracture is much easier to treat and has a much better prognosis than an open, contaminated fracture. Other considerations in fracture care are displacement and angulation. If angulation or displacement is large, reduction (manipulation) of the bone may be required and, in adults, frequently requires surgical care.

Stress fractures occur largely in the weight-bearing bones, such as the tibia or fibula (bones of the lower leg) and metatarsals (bones of the foot), and are common in sports that require repetitive impact, primarily running/jumping sports such as gymnastics or track and field. Running creates forces two to three times a person's body weight on the lower limbs.

Stress fractures usually have a narrow list of symptoms. It could present as a generalized area of pain, tenderness, and pain with weight-bearing. Usually when running, a stress fracture has severe pain in the beginning of the run, moderate pain in the middle of the run, and severe pain at the end and after the run. X-rays usually do not show any evidence of stress fractures, so a CT scan, or MRI may be more effective in unclear cases.

Joint dislocation takes place when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned. It is often caused by a sudden impact to the joint. The ligaments almost always become damaged as a result of a dislocation. Once a joint is dislocated, it may reduce (return to its proper position) on its own, or it may require physical manipulation. Once reduction is achieved, the joint is held in place through a splint (for straight joints like fingers and toes) or a bandage (for complex joints like shoulders). Even if a dislocated joint reduces on its own, it should be immobilized and medical attention should be sought. Contact sports such as football and basketball, as well as high-impact sports and sports that can result in excessive stretching or falling, cause the majority of dislocations. The shoulders, fingers, and wrists are all common places for a dislocation to occur.

Menisci are cartilaginous elements within the knee joint which serve to protect the ends of the bones from rubbing on each other and to effectively deepen the tibial sockets into which the femur attaches. There are two menisci in each knee, the medial and the lateral meniscus. Either or both may be cracked, or torn, when the knee is forcefully rotated and/or bent.

Overtraining occurs when the volume and intensity of an exercise exceeds the organism’s recovery capacity. Improvements in strength and fitness occur only during the rest period following the training. This process takes at least 36 hours to complete. If sufficient rest is not available then complete regeneration cannot occur. If this imbalance between excess training and inadequate rest persists then the individual's performance will eventually plateau and decline. Overtraining may be accompanied by one or more of the following symptoms: persistent muscle soreness, persistent fatigue, elevated resting heart rate, increased susceptibility to infections, increased incidence of injuries, irritability, depression and loss of motivation.

Fortunately, most sports injuries can be treated effectively, and most people who suffer injuries can return to a satisfying level of physical activity after an injury. Even better, many sports injuries can be prevented if people take the proper precautions.


Sports Injuries. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIAMS/National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH Publication No. 04-5278. Bethesda, MD 20892-3675. April 2004
Listening comprehension

The RICE Method

Prosím, stáhněte si nejnovější Javu a Flash


  1. What does the acronym RICE mean?
  2. Why is the R-step that important as the first thing we have to do?
  3. What is the maximum period of time the I-step should be applied for? Why is there a limitation?
  4. What must be avoided when applying the C-step?
  5. What must be done to reach the appropriate E-step effect?
  6. What is the sign the RICE method may not be effective enough?


Achilles tendon Achillova šlacha
abdomen břicho
abdominal břišní
abdominals, abs břišní svaly
angulation odklon od osy, zahnutí
ankle kotník, hlezenní kloub
anus řiť
appendix červovitý přívěsek slepého střeva, apendix
arm paže
attach upínat se, připojit
axon výběžek (dlouhý) neuronu, neurit
back záda
    back muscles zádové svalstvo
backbone páteř
ball of the foot přední část chodidla, bříško
bend ohýbat, ohnout, krčit, pokrčit
biceps biceps
bone kost
bronchus pl. bronchi průduška pl. průdušky
bronchial stem bronchiální kmen
bruising zhmoždění, krevní výron
buttocks hýždě
caecum slepé střevo
calf pl. calves lýtko
carpal bones zápěstní kosti
cartilage chrupavka
cavity dutina
cervical krční
chin brada
clavicle klíční kost
coccygeal kostrční
colon tlusté střevo
    ascending colon vzestupný tračník tlustého střeva
    descending colon sestupný tračník tlustého střeva
    sigmoid colon esovitá klička tlustého střeva
    transverse colon příčný tračník tlustého střeva
colloquial hovorový, hovorový výraz
complementary space komplementární prostor
conscious vědomý
cool-down závěrečné zklidnění, vyklusání, protažení a kompenzační cvičení
crack prasknout, zlomit se
CT scan počítačová tomografie
dendrite výběžek (krátký) neuronu, dendrite
diaphragm bránice
dislocation dislokace, vykloubení
displace posunout se (kosti při zlomenině), dislokovat
displacement posun kostí při zlomenině, dislokace
distal distální
duodenum dvanáctník, část tenkého střeva
esophagus jícen
extend natáhnout, napnout
extension extenze, napnutí, propnutí, natažení, výběžek (nervové buňky)
extensor sval způsobující extenzi v kloubu
extremity končetina
    lower extremity dolní končetina
    upper extremity horní končetina
fatigue únava
femur kost stehenní
fibula lýtková kost
flex pokrčit, ohnout
flexion flexe, pokrčení, ohnutí
flexor sval způsobující flexi v kloubu
forearm předloktí
forehead čelo
fracture fraktura, zlomenina
    closed fracture zavřená zlomenina
    comminuted fracture roztříštěná zlomenina
    compound fracture otevřená, komplikovaná zlomenina
    displaced fracture dislokovaná zlomenina
    open fracture otevřená zlomenina
    simple fracture jednoduchá, nekomplikovaná zlomenina
    stress fracture únavová zlomenina
gallbladder žlučník
gluteals, glutes hýžďové svaly
groin tříslo
guards chrániče
hairline fracture vlasová zlomenina, naštípnutí
hamstrings hamstringy, svaly zadní strany stehna
handedness preference užívání pravé či levé končetiny, pravorukost, levorukost
    left-handed levoruký, levák
    right-handed pravoruký, pravák
heal hojit (se), léčit (se)
heel pata
humerus kost pažní
ileum kyčelník, část tenkého střeva
imbalance dysbalance
incidence výskyt
inflammation zánět
injury zranění, úraz
innervate inervovat
instep nárt
intestine střevo
    large intestine tlusté střevo
    small intestine tenké střevo
irritability podrážděnost
jejunum lačník, část tenkého střeva
joint kloub
knee koleno
knuckle kloub prstu
larynx hrtan
ligament vaz
limb končetina
liver játra
lower leg bérec
lumbar bederní
lungs plíce
meniscus pl. menisci meniskus
mesenterium mezenterium, okruží
metacarpal bones záprstní kosti
metatarsal bones zánártní kosti
misalign být v nesprávném postavení
motor unit motorická jednotka
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) magnetická rezonance
multi-fragmentary mnohočetný
muscle sval
    adductor magnus muscle [ә׀daktә] velký přitahovač stehna
    anterior tibial muscle [æn׀tiәriә tibiәl] přední sval holenní
    biceps brachii, biceps of the arm [baisәps breikiai] dvojhlavý sval pažní
    biceps of the thigh dvojhlavý sval stehenní
    brachial muscle [breikiәl] ohýbač paže
    brachioradial muscle [breikiә׀reidiәl] sval vřetenní
    com. extensor of fingers natahovač prstů
    deltoid muscle deltový sval
    deltoid muscle sval deltový
    external oblique abdominal muscle [ә׀bli:k] zevní šikmý sval břišní
    flexor of fingers ohýbač prstů ruky
    flexor of the wrist ohýbač ruky
    gastrocnemius [gæstrә׀kni:miәs] sval lýtkový
    gluteus maximus, greatest gluteal muscle velký sval hýžďový
    greater pectoral muscle, pectoralis major velký prsní sval
    infraspinous muscle [infrә׀spainәs] podhřebenový sval
    involuntary muscle hladký sval
    latissimus dorsi [lætisimәs do:sai], broadest of the back široký sval zádový
    long extensor of toes dlouhý natahovač prstů
    long peroneal [perә׀ni:әl]muscle dlouhý sval lýtkový
    quadriceps muscle čtyřhlavý sval stehenní
    rectus (straight) abdominal muscle přímý břišní sval
    sartorius muscle [særtoriәs] sval krejčovský
    serratus anter. muscle [se׀reitәs] pilovitý sval
    skeletal muscle kosterní, příčně pruhovaný sval
    sternocleidomastoid [stә:nәklaidә׀mæstoid] zdvihač hlavy
    trapezius muscle [trә׀pi:ziәs] sval trapézový
    triceps of the arm [traiseps] trojhlavý sval pažní
    triceps of the arm trojhlavý sval pažní
    ulnar extensor of the wrist [alnә] natahovač ruky
    voluntary muscle kosterní, příčně pruhovaný sval
musculoskeletal muskuloskeletální, pohybový
nervous system nervový systém
    autonomic nervous system autonomní nervový systém
neuron neuron, nervová buňka
    afferent neuron aferentní, vzestupný, dostředivý neuron
    efferent neuron eferentní, sestupní, odstředivý neuron
    motor neuron motorický, hybný neuron, motoneuron
    sensory neuron sensitivní neuron
neurotransmitter neurotransmiter
occur objevovat se, vyskytovat se
overstretching nadměrné protažení, natažení
overtraining přetrénování
overuse přetížení, přetěžování
pain bolest
    severe pain velká, krutá bolest
    moderate pain středně silná, snesitelná bolest
pancreas slinivka břišní
patella čéška
pectoral prsní
    pectoral muscles prsní svaly
    pectorals, pecs prsní svaly
pelvis pánev
persistent přetrvávající, dlouhodobý
phalanges kosti prstů
pharynx hltan
plateau plateau, stagnace
pleura poplicnice
pleural cavity pleurální štěrbina
proximal proximální
quadriceps kvadriceps, čtyřhlavý sval stehenní
radius vřetenní kost
reduce omezit, zmenšit
reduction zmenšení
rib žebro
    rib cage hrudní koš
rupture ruptura, přetržení
sacral křížový
sacroiliac joint křížokyčelní skloubení
scapula lopatka
severing závažné poškození
severity závažnost
skeleton kostra
skull lebka
sliver naštípnout, štěpit
small of the back kříž
snap prasknout
sole chodidlo
soreness bolest, bolestivost
spinal páteřní, týkající se páteře
    spinal cord páteřní mícha
spine páteř
    cervical spine krční páteř
    coccygeal kostrč, kostrční obratle
    lumbar spine bederní páteř
    sacral spine křížová páteř
    thoracic spine hrudní páteř
spleen slezina
splint dlaha
sprain výron, distorze
sternum prsní kost
stiffness ztuhlost
strain natržení
susceptibility náchylnost, tendence k něčemu
swelling otok
tarsal bones nártní kosti
tear natrhnout, přetrhnout
tendon šlacha
thigh stehno
thoracic hrudní
thumb palec ruky
tibia holenní kost
toe prst nohy
trachea průdušnice
tracheal hilum [hailәm] pl. hila plicní hilus
treatment léčba
triceps triceps
ulna loketní kost
vertebra pl. vertebrae obratel, pl. obratle
volume objem
warm-up rozcvičení, rozehřátí
weight-bearing nosný (kost, kloub)
wrist zápěstí
X-rays roentgen

Content        Chapters: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7        Vocabulary       Listening        References